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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-5

Demographic similarity and variability between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the gulf cooperation council countries

1 Pediatric Rheumatology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Pediatric Rheumatology, AlSabah Hospital, Kuwait
3 Pediatric Rheumatology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Sulaiman M Al-Mayouf
Professor, Consultant of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11211
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ara.ara_4_22

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To highlight the similarities and variability between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. We comprehensively conducted electronic searches through PubMed and Google Scholar for relevant studies using the appropriate MeSH terms related to demographic and clinical features of JIA. The search was limited to articles from January 1988 to October 2021. Authors independently reviewed the searched literature to identify eligible studies. Citations from selected articles were also checked for additional eligible studies. Data were retrieved from seven eligible studies. A total of 757 JIA patients with a mean age of 10.7 ± 4.6 years were identified from four different countries (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, and Oman); there were no published reports from Bahrain or Qatar. Two studies identified the estimated prevalence rate of nearly 20 per 100,000. There was a female predominance (62.1%). The mean age at the onset of JIA manifestations was 6.3 ± 3.9 years. Thirty-two out of 377 (8.5%) patients had a positive family history of JIA. Interestingly, Omani cohort had the highest frequency (9.8%) of affected siblings with JIA. The most frequent JIA subtypes were oligoarticular JIA, followed by polyarticular and systemic JIA. Of note, oligoarticular JIA was more frequent in UAE and Omani cohorts, while systemic JIA was more prevalent in Saudi and Kuwaiti cohorts. Uveitis occurred in 5.0% (n = 38) of patients during their disease course, mostly in oligoarticular category. Detection of positive anti-nuclear antibody was in 37.3% while rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide were 21% and 10.5% respectively. Our findings estimated the number of children affected by JIA, and showed demographic similarities between patients. However, more studies are needed to address the incidence and prevalence, and the true burden of this disease in the GCC countries.

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